Venezuela is located in the North part of South America above the equator which determines its tropical climate. Over the whole territory there are climates that range from the 0 º C till 40 ºC.
On the Caribbean coast (Nueva Esparta, Sucre, Anzoátegui, Falcón, etc), the average yearly temperature is between 25 ºC and 29 ºC and average rainfall is 600 mm 3.
A bit more to the South in the state of Bolivar, Amazones y the Delta, temperatures are around 28 ºC and average rainfall is 4000 mm. In the Andes (Táchira, Mérida, Trujillo, etc) the average temperature of the habituated zones is between 18 ºC and 22 ºC, however in the mountain zones with heights above 3500 meters yearly the temperature is around 10 ºC.
Rainfall in these regions is 820 – 900 mm. In the Llanos (the flat regions) there is a clear distinction between the dry season (between December and April) and the wet season (from May till November); rainfall is between 1200 and 1600 mm and the average temperature is around 28 °C.
The national flower of Venezuela is a kind of orchid, the Cattleya Mossiae, and the national tree is the Araguaney or Tabebuia Chrysantha; this doesn't, however, determine the kind of flora in the whole country. Because of the diversity of the climate and the altitudes there is a great variety of flora in to be found in Venezuela, from rainforests, with an annual rainfall of 1800 mm to xerophile forests where the rainfall is below 1000 mm per year.
On the north coast of the Caribbean (Nueva Esparta, Falcón, Anzoátegui, Sucre, etc), the dominating flora is the xerophile, represented in its majority by thorn bushes, low, 8 to 15 cm bushes and different kind of cactuses. Mangrove swamps can also be found there, on riversides and where salt water is found due to its proximity to the sea. Other typical floras of this region are summer forests, where the trees lose their leaves during the dry season and start flourishing during the wet season.
Going a bit further to the South of the country, in the Amazonas, Delta Amacuro and Bolívar State we find the rain jungle, with a yearly average temperature of 26 ºC to 28 ºC where the trees reach a height of up to 40 meters forming a refugee for orchids, ferns, etc.
The South of Bolivar State is characterized by the presence of vast savannahs covered with grass and interrupted by palms at the sides of the rivers that cross them. Other typical floras of this region are small meat eating plants.
In the Western part of the country (Barinas, Apure , Guarico, etc) we find the Llanos (flat regions) with their inlets and savannahs. The changing seasons consequently bring the presence of summer forests which lose their leaves during dry season and flourish again when the rain reappears.
The savannahs vary with the season. In the rainy season (between May and November) they flood and during the dry spell (December to April) they are embraced by the fires. In the landscape of the savannahs palms can be observed near the rivers.
In the Andean mountain range (Mérida, Táchira, Trujillo, etc), due to the cold weather and the altitude, the vegetation is mainly 3 to 8 meter high bushes, because of the Paramo. These are resistant to the cold temperatures (that can reach 0 ºC) and lack of water. Thanks to their hairy leaves and special water storage system they can resist the winds and retain stored water.
he Troupial or Icterus Icterus is the national bird of Venezuela and can be found in all the warm regions of the country. Venezuela is one of the 17 most biodiversity countries in the World and belongs to the so called mega varied countries in the World together with some others in South America and the Southeast of Asia. According to the most recent studies, there are approximately 1300 species of birds in Venezuela, 2120 species of land vertebrates, 206 species of mammals, 254 species of reptiles, 214 species of amphibians and 3000 species of marine life.
The distribution of this fauna varies according to height, climate and the kind of flora that dominates each region. The best places to observe animals in their natural habitat are the Llanos and the Delta Orinoco.